In modern clinical medicine, the ventilator is an effective method that can artificially replace the autonomous ventilation function. The ventilator has been widely used for respiratory failure caused by various reasons, anesthesia and respiratory management during major surgery, respiratory support therapy and emergency resuscitation Among them, the ventilator occupies a very important position in the field of modern medicine. A ventilator is a vital medical device that can prevent and treat respiratory failure, reduce complications, and save and prolong the lives of patients.
Classification of ventilator
Ventilator is classified according to the type of use or application
(1) Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) Definition: When the patient's spontaneous breathing weakens or disappears, the mechanical ventilator generates, controls and regulates the patient's breathing completely. 2. Application: When the spontaneous breathing caused by the disease disappears or weakens; when the spontaneous breathing is irregular or too fast, and mechanical ventilation cannot coordinate with the patient, artificial methods are used to suppress or weaken the spontaneous breathing.
(2). Auxiliary mechanical ventilation (AMV) Definition: In the presence of patient breathing, the ventilator assists or enhances the patient's spontaneous breathing. The various types of mechanical ventilation are mainly triggered by the patient's inspiratory negative pressure or inspiratory airflow. 2. Application: Although spontaneous breathing exists and is more regular, it is not suitable for patients with weakened spontaneous breathing but insufficient ventilation.
Ventilator is classified according to the use of mechanical ventilation
(Two) chest shape
(1) Constant pressure type: After the pressure in the respiratory tract reaches the expected value, the ventilator opens the exhalation valve, and the chest and lungs passively collapse or generate exhalation from negative pressure. When the pressure in the airway continues to fall, the ventilator passes through positive pressure again Generate airflow and cause inhalation.
(2) Constant volume type: The positive tidal volume is used to send the estimated tidal volume into the lungs. After reaching the expected tidal volume, the air supply is stopped and the exhaled state is entered.
(3) Timing type: supply air according to the pre-designed inhalation and expiration time.
(4) Mixed type (multifunctional type).
Ventilator supplies air according to ventilation frequency
(1) High-frequency ventilation: ventilation frequency> 60 times / min. 1. Advantages: low airway pressure, low intrathoracic pressure, little interference to circulation, no need to close the airway. 2. Disadvantages: Not conducive to the removal of carbon dioxide. 3. Classification: high frequency positive pressure ventilation, high frequency jet ventilation, high frequency oscillatory ventilation.
The ventilator is classified according to whether there is a synchronization device or performance
(1) Synchronous ventilator: The inhalation of the patient's spontaneous breathing can trigger the ventilator to supply air into the patient's respiratory tract and produce an inhalation action.
(2) Non-synchronized ventilator: the patient's breathing or inspiratory negative pressure cannot trigger the ventilator to supply air, and is generally only used for patients with controlled mechanical ventilation.
Ventilator is classified according to applicable objects
(2) Infant ventilator (3) Adult ventilator
Ventilator is classified according to working principle
(1) Simple ventilator
(2) Membrane lung ventilator