Industry News

pm2.5 mask

2020-04-08


pm2.5 mask



PM2.5 mask refers to a mask that can effectively filter PM2.5 particles. The tightness of the mask determines the ability to filter suspended particles. Can effectively filter the invisible killer in the air-haze, viruses, bacteria, dust mites, pollen and other small particles. Suitable for environments with poor air quality. The basic structure of PM2.5 mask is an antibacterial fabric on the outer layer, made of carbon fiber felt, polymer fabric, non-woven fabric, etc.


structure


The basic structure of PM2.5 mask is an antibacterial fabric on the outer layer, made of carbon fiber felt, polymer fabric, non-woven fabric, etc. The middle layer is a warm filling, and the bottom layer is a PM2.5 filter. The dust-free granular activated carbon is added in the middle of the filter. The filter is treated with nano-silver fungicide and the filterability is about 95% to 99%. The main materials of PM2.5 masks are non-woven fabrics, filter paper, etc., and the most important is the use of lead carbon cloth, which can play a good anti-virus function. PM2.5 masks are generally disposable masks. Try not to use it twice or more.


kind


The initial design of pm2.5 masks was to minimize the possibility of people inhaling dust and germs, but with the rapid development of pm2.5 masks, the types of masks have gradually increased, and the types of masks have also increased.


According to the shape classification, the masks mainly include hanging ear type, strap type and head-mounted type, among which the hanging ear type is more convenient and comfortable to use.


According to the structure classification, the masks mainly include: disposable flat masks, disposable folding masks, disposable cup masks, three-dimensional PM2.5 comfortable masks.


According to the classification of wearing positions, masks mainly include: nasal masks, masks, and nasal congestion.


According to the classification, PM2.5 masks are generally divided into:


Normal grade: No disinfection, may contain pathogenic substances, only suitable for dust and particle prevention.
Disinfection level: only kill pathogenic microorganisms, there are still other microorganisms breeding, only for ordinary occasions.
Sterilization level: kill all microorganisms and reach a sterile state, suitable for medical and public health.
The safety factors of ordinary and disinfection grades are much lower than sterilization grades, so consumers should clearly see the outer packaging and distinguish the grades when purchasing disposable masks.
According to material classification, PM2.5 masks marked on the market are generally divided into:
Ordinary gauze masks, medical ordinary masks, N95 masks, passed the group standard authorization certification of "PM2.5 protective masks", etc.

Ordinary gauze masks can be repeatedly washed and used. The disadvantage is that saliva will be left on the inner surface of the mask that touches the mouth and nose. If you do not clean it, it will easily breed bacteria, which does not meet the hygiene requirements. The fibers of cotton masks are generally thick and cannot effectively filter smaller particles, and most of them have not passed the international safety certification, and the protection effect is not guaranteed. (This type of mask has no anti-haze effect)


N95 mask, this type of mask is mainly a disposable mask, the protection effect of PM2.5 reaches more than 95%.

Medical ordinary masks, although not as effective in preventing infection as N95, can prevent patients from transmitting the virus to others. (This type of mask has no anti-haze effect)


The group standard of "PM2.5 protective masks" has been implemented since March 1, 2016. It is the first group standard of PM2.5 protective masks in China, and it is also a true standard of conscience. Only then was it introduced.


Features


The PM2.5 mask can deeply filter the haze and effectively filter the invisible killer in the air-bacterial viruses, car exhaust, second-hand smoke, formaldehyde, dust mites, haze, volatile chemicals, air pollution poisonous gas, block droplets, The use of body fluids and secretions, the influence of inhalable particulate matter caused by automobile exhaust, absorption and filtration of poisonous gases, etc. are widely used in the medical and health industry and public places. No matter in terms of filtration efficiency, air permeability, antibacterial property, safety, etc., it greatly surpasses ordinary masks.


PM2.5 masks add a lot of protection and are therefore more versatile than traditional masks. For example, its lead charcoal cloth can play a role of (anti-toxic), filter paper can block more than 95% of fine dust inhaled into the body, which is a better type of mask. Some industrial areas also use this mask for anti-virus, because there may be certain chemicals or toxic gases in the industrial area, and the lead carbon cloth of PM2.5 mask has anti-virus function.


Prospects


In 2012, the industry was called "the first year of PM2.5 masks". Since the haze in September 2012, masks have become popular products, including ordinary non-woven masks, medical masks, KN90 masks, N95 masks, etc. . Stimulated by the haze weather, the market size of PM2.5 masks exceeded 1.5 billion yuan. In October 2013, haze occurred in Huanghuai and other places in central and southern China. The market size of anti-haze products in 2013 will reach 10 billion yuan.


Most of the masks on the Internet are marked with "PM2.5". The protection principle of each mask is also different. Some are said to be used to protect non-oily particles, reduce the odor of some acid gases, and are suitable for dust, solid smoke, microorganisms or certain mists. Some claim that the interlayer uses activated carbon, which can prevent dust, bacteria, formaldehyde, and second-hand smoke. Regardless of the principle, each mask claims to have a filtering effect of PM2.5 of more than 90%. In addition to having many masks that can block PM2.5, many new concepts and elements have been added. If there is a claim "PM2.5 microfiltration technology filter" and so on.



Technical principle


PM2.5 masks use air filter material technology, 0.25 micron level, can prevent virus intrusion. There is also dust-free granular activated carbon in the mask filter. As the traditional activated carbon fiber mask is coated with a layer of carbon powder on the filter fiber, there is a part of fine carbon powder particles in the fiber cloth, which is certain for users with lung diseases. Impact. And the refined granular activated carbon can not only deeply purify the dust, but also adsorb toxic gases, further improving the safety of the mask.


The most common gauze masks have the worst effect in protecting airborne particles. Ordinary gauze masks are fiber masks. Its flow blocking principle is a mechanical barrier. Through this layer of mechanical blocking, large particles can be blocked. , But particles smaller than 5 microns in diameter cannot be blocked.


Medical surgical masks and disposable medical masks can block particles larger than 4 microns in diameter. Tests conducted in a mask tightness laboratory in a hospital environment show that according to general medical standards, for 0.3 micron particles, medical surgical masks penetrate The rate is 18.3%, and the general disposable medical mask is 85.6%, which shows that the medical mask has a limited barrier effect on fine particles.


Medical N95 masks detect 0.3 micron particles, and large particles can be blocked. When tested in a closed mask laboratory, the transmission rate of medical N95 masks is only 0.425%, which can be said to be more than 99% of particulate matter. Are blocked.


main feature


First, the efficiency of filtering PM2.5 fine particles by air filter is greater than 95%;


Second, the air filter can be quickly sterilized, for example, the kill rate is greater than 90% in one hour (required by the national standard for disposable sanitary products) to prevent the breeding of bacteria and cause secondary pollution;


Third, the key is that the above-mentioned high-efficiency filtering and rapid sterilization functions must be implemented on the same air filter to kill the bacteria remaining on the air filter and avoid secondary pollution. If the antibacterial fabric of the PM2.5 antibacterial mask is separated from the PM2.5 air filter, and other materials are sandwiched between it, the bacteria that are trapped on the air filter by the fine particles of PM2.5 will breed and cause secondary pollution. Masks do not have the effect of antibacterial and anti-haze.


Major product editors


There are more than 1,000 varieties of PM2.5 masks sold online, and there are more than 420 shops selling masks. The State Food and Drug Administration database shows that there are 128 approved disposable masks nationwide. Many well-known domestic medical equipment manufacturers are mainly producing disposable three-layer masks.


Disposable three-layer mask, namely PM2.5 three-dimensional protective mask, these three layers include the outermost layer: environmentally friendly active dyeing (cotton + polyester fiber) high density antibacterial fabric, the second layer: PM2.5 grade protective layer Polypropylene fiber (translucent, pure white), replacement layer: an independent three-layer ultra-fine filter chip, which effectively filters the invisible killer in the air-viruses, bacteria, dust mites, haze, volatile chemicals, etc.


3M dust masks, activated carbon is generally used in the interlayer, which can prevent dust, bacteria, formaldehyde, and second-hand smoke.

Non-woven composite face mask uses static composite fiber non-woven fabric, which can achieve the effect of filtering PM2.5 particles.


Medical protective mask adopts ergonomic structure, three layers of non-woven fabric material, and ultra-fine fiber high filter layer. The use of antibacterial filter paper can effectively block fine dust, thereby effectively reducing bacterial invasion. This mask has a moisture-proof layer in the middle, which has the characteristics of acid resistance, alkali resistance, temperature resistance, etc., and has good skin-friendly property and good comfort. Strong static treatment filter cloth can filter bacteria.


Anion masks are designed with cotton and water acupuncture antibacterial fiber layer, which has good air permeability. This mask has negative ion function. The mask packaging clearly states that it has exaggerated uses such as relieving fatigue, promoting aerobic breathing, and improving lung function. The mask can effectively filter fine particles with a diameter of 0.1 μm (ie PM0.1).


Professional protective cup-type masks use environmentally friendly materials and have less irritation to the skin. The use of high-efficiency electrostatic filter material and unique breathing valve design can reduce the accumulation of heat and moisture and make breathing smoother. The three-dimensional cup cover design increases the internal space and makes it more comfortable to wear.


Mask with breathing valve is made of N95 filter material, non-woven fabric material and activated carbon material. It can isolate extremely fine dust, and is suitable for various dusty operating environments, public places and various humid environments. Effectively block and block particles that degrade carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds and various industrial dusts.


Operation method


There are also particular about wearing masks. The masks on the market are generally divided into rectangular and cup-shaped. When using a rectangular mask, press the wire on the mask against the bridge of the nose, and then spread the entire mask along the bridge of the nose to exert its effectiveness.


For cup masks, make sure the mask is dense enough to stick to the face, and the exhaled air will not leak out to be effective. When wearing a cup mask, check for air leaking from the edge of the mask. If the mask is not tight, reposition it before wearing it.


1. First, loosen the headband every 2-4 cm, pass your hand through the mask headband, and the metal nose is forward.
2. Wear a mask and close to the face. The upper end of the mask is placed behind the head, and then the lower end is pulled over the head, placed behind the neck, and adjusted to a comfortable position.
3. Press the tips of your two fingers along the metal strip of the nose bridge from the middle to the sides and slowly press inward until it is close to the bridge of the nose.

4. Cover the mask with both hands as much as possible and perform positive and negative pressure tests. (Positive pressure test: Cover the mask with both hands and exhale vigorously. If the air overflows from the edge of the mask, it is improperly worn, and the headband and nose bridge must be adjusted again.)


Maintenance method


1. The outer layer of the mask often accumulates a lot of dirt, bacteria and other dirt in the outside air, and the inner layer blocks exhaled bacteria and saliva. Therefore, the two sides cannot be used alternately, otherwise the dirt contaminated by the outer layer will be directly When it is in close contact with the face, it is sucked into the human body and becomes a source of infection. [7]
2. When the mask is not worn, it should be folded into a clean envelope, and the side that is close to the nose and mouth should be folded inward. Do not put it in your pocket or hang it around your neck. If the mask is wet with exhaled heat or saliva, its barrier effect will be greatly reduced. [7]

3. It is best to prepare a few more masks in order to replace them, and they should be changed and washed once a day. When washing, first blanch with boiling water for 5 minutes, then gently scrub with hands, wash with water and expose to the sun. But there is activated carbon filtration and disposable does not need to be cleaned. [7]


Precautions


1. The pm2.5 mask uses three-dimensional cutting to maintain a breathable space; and an adjustable nose bridge strip is used to obtain the best fit with the face shape.


2. The masks for men and women are the same. XS code is applicable to children 3-6 years old; S code is applicable to 7-12 years old; the actual color is shown in the circle.


3. After using the mask, please store it in a clean and dry place as far as possible to avoid folding, so as not to damage the bridge of the nose.


4. Suggested cleaning method: Take out the PM2.5 filter before washing, dilute with neutral detergent and water, put the mask in, gently rub it by hand, and dry it in a cool place. Do not wash in the washing machine with other clothes. It is generally recommended to clean it once every 1-2 weeks, and the filter should be replaced during cleaning.


5, young children under the age of 3 have low vital capacity and are not recommended for use; it is not recommended for use in a place with no air circulation or indoors.


6. People with heart or respiratory problems (such as asthma emphysema), pregnant women, dizziness after wearing, dyspnea and sensitive skin are not suitable for use.


7. Although wearing a mask on a hazy day is essential, it cannot be worn for a long time. Because the blood circulation of the nasal mucosa is very strong, the channels in the nasal cavity are tortuous, and the nose hair forms a filtering "barrier". When air is inhaled into the nostril, the airflow forms a vortex in the tortuous channel, so that the airflow drawn into the nasal cavity is heated. If you wear a mask for a long time, the nasal mucosa will become fragile and the original physiological function of the nasal cavity will be lost.


8. For the cleaning of the mask, avoid using the two sides alternately, so as to avoid the dirt contaminated by the outer layer being sucked into the human body when it is directly close to the face, and become a source of infection. At the same time, worn masks should be cleaned daily and exposed to sunlight or disinfected with purple light as much as possible.


Social evaluation


Experts recommend wearing masks professionally


Some masks claiming to be effective in isolating PM2.5 may be affected by air quality in that the concept is greater than the actual effect. On October 31, 2013, the staff of Changchun Meteorological Bureau and Changchun Health Education Center stated that medical N95 masks have the best anti-fog and haze effect.


PM2.5 mask effect inconclusive


PM2.5 masks have large breathing resistance, and usually only wear N95 masks when they come into contact with very serious respiratory patients, such as when entering SARS and other infectious wards. Ordinary non-woven mask fibers cannot block PM2.5 particles at all, while activated carbon only works on gaseous toxic and harmful pollutants such as volatile organics, and has a very limited filtering effect on particulates that can enter the lungs. Generally, cotton gauze masks only have a dustproof effect. Professional protective masks such as N95 and KN90 can prevent respiratory infections and should have a certain protective effect on PM2.5.


Wu Haidong, a professor at the School of Public Health of Fudan University, once said that wearing N95 masks has little effect on blocking PM2.5. Masks can only block large particles of pollution, not small particles such as PM2.5.